Brain research has forever shattered the myth of fixed intelligence. We are not born with a single fixed “intelligence quotient” or IQ. Each of us has the potential to develop at least seven different “intelligences”. They are:
- Linguistic intelligence
The ability to read, speak and write well – highly developed in people such as Churchill, Kennedy, Shakespeare and Jane Austen.
- Mathematical-logical intelligence
The ability to reason, calculate and think logically – highly developed in economists, scientists, engineers, lawyers and accountants
- Visual-spatial intelligence
The ability to paint, draw, take imaginative photographs, create sculptures or to visualise three-dimensional space. Highly developed in navigators and also in artists such as Picasso and Michelangelo.
- Musical intelligence
The ability to compose songs, sing, play musical instruments, create poetry, use rhyme and rhythm.
- Inter-personal (or “social”) intelligence
The ability to relate to others – strong in sales people, teachers and natural leaders.
- Intra-personal (or “reflective”) intelligence
The ability to focus on inner feelings, draw conclusions from experiences and make plans.
- Bodily-personal intelligence (kinestethic)
The ability to use one’s hands or body – strong gymnasts, dancers, craftsmen and athletes. To the above seven intelligences Dr Howard Gardener has recently added an eighth:
- Naturalist intelligence